Why is this sculpture missing its hands?
That Bodhisattva is actually made of wood, which tends to break more easily than the sculptures made of bronze/stone so the hands were the most vulnerable/protruding pieces of that sculpture and were the most likely section to break. In this case, the hands were carved separately, then attached by pins.
This sculpture is very very old (from the 10th-11th century), so with time, wear, and potential accidents, the hands are now missing, but it is amazing that the facial features and those beautiful fabric folds have survived.
Why is it missing its hands?
These wood sculptures were carved from a single tree trunk, but the elements that stuck out beyond the basic cylinder of the trunk, most notably the hands, were carved separately and pinned in. The hands are almost always the first thing to be lost, both because they’re separate and because they stick out.
Why are these two paired up?
They're paired to point out the cross-cultural dialogue that's taking place. For example, notice the woman's wardrobe in William Merritt Chase's painting. She's wearing a Japanese kimono, showing the late 19th century American interest in Asian arts and culture after trade was reestablished between the Western world and Japan for the first time in more than two hundred years."