What type of needles were used to create this?
It looks like this was probably made with a metal needle sturdy enough to go through leather but thin enough to thread the beads!
The method of attaching the beads to the bag was the "lane stitch" technique, for creating parallel rows of beads. The process involves several beads being threaded at a time before they are attached to the leather.
What type of metal would they have had access to at that time? The hole is so small! What is the thread made of?
This bag is from the early 20th century, so they would have had access to needles produced industrially, which could have been very thin.
The material of the thread would likely be cotton. It is also possible that the thread was made of wool.
How long would it take to make one of these bags?
Based on the techniques used I would think not very long, a few days if you were working constantly.
The construction of the bag form itself would have been quite quick and the beads are applied using a lane stitch, sometimes also referred to as a "lazy stitch." Several beads are strung onto sinew and stitched down at a time, an efficient way of beading large areas.